The realities of certain groups of parents and families were never fully explored and considered in the framework of involvement at school. This recent awareness of the barriers and challenges faced by minority family systems has contributed to the PC influx in schools. Most targeted families are characterized by their living in the lower income, underserved and greatly marginalized communities. They are mostly people of color, black and brown, immigrants, and many had negative past experiences in school themselves. Some had little formal education, and perceived schools as expert and themselves unworthy to engage. Many worked, had younger children to care for at home, and transportation and child care concerns. These factors resulted in less than expected attendance in school conferences, and related activities.